# Source code for netrd.reconstruction.convergent_cross_mapping

```
"""
convergent_cross_mapping.py
---------------------------
Graph reconstruction algorithm from time series data based on
Sugihara et al., Detecting Causality in Complex Ecosystems, Science (2012)
DOI: 10.1126/science.1227079
author: Chia-Hung Yang and Dina Mistry
Submitted as part of the 2019 NetSI Collabathon.
"""
from .base import BaseReconstructor
import numpy as np
from itertools import permutations
from scipy.stats import pearsonr
import networkx as nx
from sklearn.neighbors import NearestNeighbors
from ..utilities import create_graph, threshold
[docs]class ConvergentCrossMapping(BaseReconstructor):
"""Infers dynamical causal relations."""
[docs] def fit(
self, TS, tau=1, threshold_type='range', cutoffs=[(0.95, np.inf)], **kwargs
):
r"""Infer causal relation applying Takens' Theorem of dynamical systems.
Convergent cross-mapping infers dynamical causal relation between
vairiables from time series data. Time series data portray an
attractor manifold of the dynamical system of interest. Existing
approaches of attractor reconstruction involved building the shadow
manifold for a single variable :math:`X`, which is defined by the
time-lagged vectors :math:`(X(t), X(t-\tau), X(t-2\tau), ...,
X(t-(N-1)\tau))` where :math:`N` denotes number of variables in the
system and :math:`\tau` is an arbitrary time- lagged
interval. Takens' theorem and its generalization indicated that if a
variable :math:`X` is causally influencing another variable
:math:`Y` in a dynamical system, then there exists a one-to-one and
local-structure- preserving mapping from :math:`X`'s shadow
manifold to :math:`Y`'s.
The convergent cross-mapping algorithm first constructs the shadow
data cloud (a portray of the shadow manifold) for every variable,
and it then examines the mutual predictability for all pairs of
them. Specifically, for a point :math:`u(t)` in :math:`X`'s shadow
data cloud, the time indices :math:`\{t_1, t_2, ..., t_{N+1}\}` of
its :math:`N+1` nearest neighbors are obtained, which are mapped to
a neighborhood in :math:`Y`'s shadow data cloud :math:`\{v(t_1),
v(t_2), ..., v(t_{N+1})\}`. The estimate :math:`\hat{Y}(t)` is
computed as an average over this neighborhood, with weights
decaying exponentially with corresponding distance in :math:`X`'s
shadow data cloud. The algorithm concludes a causal link from
:math:`X` to :math:`Y` if correlation between :math:`Y` and
:math:`\hat{Y}` is significant.
Furthermore, Sugihara et al.'s simulation suggested that the
correlation converging to 1 as the length of time series data grows
is a necessary condition for :math:`X` causally affects :math:`Y`
in a deterministic dynamical system. The convergent cross-mapping
approach is thus numerically validated to infer causal relation
from time series data.
The results dictionary also includes the raw Pearson correlations
between elements (`'correlation_matrix'`), their associated
p-values (`'pvalues_matrix'`), and a matrix of the negative logarithm
of the p-values (`'weights_matrix'`).
Parameters
----------
TS (np.ndarray)
:math:`N \times L` array consisting of :math:`L` observations
from :math:`N` sensors.
tau (int)
Number of time steps for a single time-lag.
Returns
-------
G (nx.Graph)
A reconstructed graph with :math:`N` nodes.
Notes
-----
1. The length of time series data must be long enough such that
:math:`L \geq 3 + (N-1)(1+\tau)`.
2. The :math:`(i,j)`-th entry of the correlation matrix entails the
correlation between the :math:`j`-th variable and its estimate
from the :math:`i`-th variable. A similar rule applies to the
p-value matrix.
3. The computation complexity of this implementation is
:math:`O(N^3 L)`.
References
----------
.. [1] Sugihara et al., Detecting Causality in Complex Ecosystems,
Science (2012) DOI: 10.1126/science.1227079
"""
data = TS.T # Transpose the time series to make observations the rows
L, N = data.shape
# Raise error if there is not enough data to run the implementation
if L < 3 + (N - 1) * (1 + tau):
message = 'Need more data.'
message += ' L must be not less than 3+(N-1)*(1+tau).'
raise ValueError(message)
# Create shadow data cloud for each variable
shadows = [shadow_data_cloud(data[:, i], N, tau) for i in range(N)]
# Obtain nearest neighbors of points in the shadow data clould and
# their weights for time series estimates
neighbors, distances = zip(*[nearest_neighbors(shad, L) for shad in shadows])
nei_weights = [neighbor_weights(dist) for dist in distances]
# For every variable X and every other variable Y,
# construct the estimates of Y from X's shadow data cloud and
# compute the Pearson correlation between Y and its estimates
# along with the p-value
correlation = np.ones((N, N), dtype=float)
pvalue = np.zeros((N, N), dtype=float)
for i, j in permutations(range(N), 2):
estimates = time_series_estimates(data[:, j], neighbors[i], nei_weights[i])
(M,) = estimates.shape
correlation[i, j], pvalue[i, j] = pearsonr(estimates, data[-M:, j])
# Build the reconstructed graph by finding significantly correlated
# variables,
# where weights of reconstructed edges are selected such that we can
# sort zero p-values in decreasing order and tell edges with zero p-value
weights = np.full(pvalue.shape, np.inf)
weights[pvalue > 0] = -np.log10(pvalue[pvalue > 0])
A = threshold(weights, threshold_type, cutoffs=cutoffs, **kwargs)
G = create_graph(A, create_using=nx.DiGraph())
# Save the graph object, matrices of correlation and p-values into the
# "results" field (dictionary)
self.results['correlation_matrix'] = correlation
self.results['pvalues_matrix'] = pvalue
self.results['weights_matrix'] = weights
self.results['thresholded_matrix'] = A
self.results['graph'] = G
return G
def shadow_data_cloud(data, N, tau):
"""Return the lagged-vector data cloud of a given variable's time series.
Parameters
----------
data (np.ndarray): Length-:math:`L` 1D array of a single variable's times series.
N (int): Number of variables.
tau (int): Number of time steps for a single time-lag.
Returns
-------
shadow (np.ndarray): :math:`M \times N` array of the lagged-vector data cloud,
where :math:`M = L - (N-1) * \tau` is the number of points
in the data cloud.
Notes
-----
Given the data :math:`(x_1(t), x_2(t), ..., x_N(t)), t = 1, 2, ..., L`, the
:math:`M` lagged vectors for the :math:`i`th variable are defined as
:math:`(x_i(t), x_i(t-tau), x_i(t-2*tau), ..., x_i(t-(N-1)*tau))`
for :math:`t = (N-1)*tau + 1, (N-1)*tau + 2, ..., L`.
"""
(L,) = data.shape
M = L - (N - 1) * tau # Number of points in the shadow data cloud
shadow = np.zeros((M, N), dtype=data.dtype)
for j in reversed(range(N)): # Fill in column values from the right
delta = (N - 1 - j) * tau # Amount of time-lag for this column
shadow[:, j] = data[delta : delta + M]
return shadow
def nearest_neighbors(shadow, L):
"""
Return time indices of the N+1 nearest neighbors for every point in the
shadow data cloud and their corresponding Euclidean distances.
Parameters
----------
shadow (np.ndarray): Array of the shadow data cloud.
L (int): Number of observations in the time series.
Returns
-------
nei (np.ndarray): :math:`M \times (N+1)` array of time indices of nearest
neighbors where :math:`M` is the number of points in the
shadow data cloud.
dist (np.ndarray): :math:`M \times (N+1)` array of corresponding Euclidean
distance between the data point to the neighbors.
Notes
-----
1. The nearest neighbors are ordered in increasing order of distances.
2. If the length of time series is at a larger scale than the number of
variables, specifically N + 2 < M/2, the implementation finds nearest
neighbors using the Ball Tree data structure; otherwise the brute force
method is applied.
"""
M, N = shadow.shape
k = N + 2 # Number of nearest neighbors to be found, including itself
method = 'ball_tree' if k < M / 2 else 'brute'
nbrs = NearestNeighbors(n_neighbors=k, algorithm=method).fit(shadow)
dist, nei = nbrs.kneighbors(shadow)
# Remove the first column for both arrays, which stands for the data points
# themselves
nei = np.delete(nei, 0, axis=1)
dist = np.delete(dist, 0, axis=1)
# Modify the neighbors' indices to their time indices
nei += L - M
return nei, dist
def neighbor_weights(dist):
r"""Return the weights of neighbors in time seires estimates.
Parameters
----------
dist (np.ndarray): :math:`M \times (N+1)` array of Euclidean distances between a
point to its nearest neighbors in the shadow data cloud
(sorted by increasing order of distances), where :math:`M` is
the number of points in the shadow data cloud.
Returns
-------
wei (np.ndarray): :math:`M \times (N+1)` array of exponentially decaying weights
of the nearest neighbors.
Notes
-----
For every point :math:`u(t)` in the shadow data cloud, based on its Euclidean
distance to the nearest neighbors :math:`d(u(t), u(t_k))`, :math:`l = 1, 2, ..., N+1`
(sorted by increasing order of distances), the weight of neighbor :math:`k` is
:math:`w_k = f_k / \sum_{l=1}^{N+1} f_l` where
:math:`f_k = e^{-\[ d(u(t), u(t_k)) / d(u(t), u(t_1)) \]}`.
"""
# For shadow data points where the nearest distance among the neighbors is
# zero, let the weight be one for the nearest neighbor and zero otherwise
wei = np.zeros(dist.shape)
wei[:, 0] = 1
# For those where the nearest distance is positive, assign weights that are
# exponentially decaying with the ratio to the nearest distance
pos_nearest_dist = dist[:, 0] > 0
dist_pnd = dist[pos_nearest_dist, :]
wei[pos_nearest_dist, :] = np.exp(-dist_pnd / dist_pnd[:, 0, np.newaxis])
wei = wei / wei.sum(axis=1, keepdims=True)
return wei
def time_series_estimates(data_y, nei_x, wei_x):
r"""Return estimates of variable :math:`Y` from variable :math:`X`'s shadow data cloud.
Parameters
----------
data_y (np.ndarray): 1D array of variable :math:`Y`'s time series data.
nei_x (np.ndarray): :math:`M \times (N+1)` array of time indices of nearest
neighbors in :math:`X`'s shadow data cloud, where :math:`M` is the
number of points in the shadow data cloud.
wei_x (np.ndarray): Array of corresponding weights of the nearest
neighbors in :math:`X`'s shadow data cloud.
Returns
-------
ests (np.ndarray): Length-:math:`M` 1D array of estimates of :math:`Y`'s time series.
Notes
-----
Let :math:`t_1, t_2, ..., t_{N+1}` be the time indices of nearest neighbor of
point :math:`t` in :math:`X`'s shadow data cloud. Its corresponding estimates of :math:`Y`
is :math:`\hat{Y}(t) = \sum_{k=1}^{N+1} w(t_k) Y(t_k)`, where :math:`w`s are weights of
nearest neighbors.
"""
ests = (data_y[nei_x] * wei_x).sum(axis=1)
return ests
```